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= 16

= 16

Normality is a term used in chemistry to express the concentration of a solution. When you denote the concentration of the solution using normality, it means you are expressing the weight of the solute in its gram equivalent per liter of the final solution.

Normality(N) = Equivalents of Solute / Liters of Solution

Normality is denoted by ‘N’.

The units of normality are gram equivalent per liter (eq/L) or milligram equivalent per liter (meq/L).

The gram equivalent of a substance is the atomic or molecular weight of a substance divided by its valence.

We know that valence of a substance is the mass of the substance that can combine with eight grams of oxygen or one gram of hydrogen.

You can calculate normality using any of the following formulae:

Normality(N) = (Mass of the solute) / (Equivalent mass of the solute(E) × Volume of the solution(V) )

Normality(N) = W_{g} / ( E_{g} × V )

Normality(N) = W_{g} / E_{g} × V = Equivalent weight per liter / ( W × V )

Note that in the above formulae the volume of the solution V should be in in liters.

- Normality plays an important role in chemical laboratories, in preparation of various solutions, drugs, and medicines, water treatment plants, etc.
- In acid-base chemistry, the number of hydroxide ion’s (OH−) or hydronium ion’s (H
_{3}O+) concentration of the solution is considered as the normality of the solution. - In reduction-oxidation or redox reactions, the number of electrons that are involved for exchange either by a reducing agent or an oxidizing agent is considered as normality.
- In precipitation reactions, the number of ions comprises the normality of the solution.
- Used in precipitation reactions to measure the number of ions.

Molarity represents the concentration of a solution in terms of ions and compounds.

Normality represents the concentration of a solution in terms of H+ ions for an acid solution or OH- ions for a base solution.

Given the molarity of a solution, you can calculate the normality by multiplying it with the H+ or OH- ions.

Normality = Molarity x number of H+ or OH- ions

You cannot always use normality to express the concentration of a solution, because:

- You need a pre-defined equivalence factor.
- For a given substance, the normality is not fixed; it keeps varying with the chemical reaction taking place.
- A 1N solution of sulphuric acid will completely neutralize 1N solution of sodium hydroxide. Even though sulphuric acid gives two H+ ions and sodium hydroxide gives only one OH- ion, here the number of ions exchanged is not accounted for separately. All such differences are put aside and only one scale is used here – the normality.

Using CalculatorHut’s online free normality calculator, you can easily calculate the normality of a solution. It is user-friendly and gives the results instantly!

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